On-the-Job Training

How to Develop a Hands-On Training Program

On-the-Job Training - How to Develop a Hands-On Training Program

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Learning on the job is probably the oldest form of career development.

If you're in a leadership or management position, think about how you train your people in new skills. You probably use a mixture of training methods, including on-the-job training.

But when is on-the-job training appropriate? And how do you structure it effectively, so that your people and your organization get the greatest benefit from it?

In this article, we explore on-the-job training. We examine where it works best, and discuss how to set up an effective training program for your team or organization.

What Is On-the-Job Training?

This type of training happens when a team member (trainee) works alongside a more experienced colleague (trainer), so that they can learn new skills under normal working conditions.

As such, it's probably the oldest form of career development. For centuries people have been learning how to do a job by working with, or observing, someone more knowledgeable and experienced. It's still the most widely used training method today, and is suitable in many types of workplaces.

There are two forms of on-the-job training: unstructured and structured.

Unstructured Training Methods

Unstructured on-the-job training is "free form." It mostly consists of the trainer acting as a guide or mentor to the trainee throughout the working day.

The trainer teaches vital knowledge and skills, and then allows the trainee to learn through trial and error. The trainer, along with a manager, offers feedback and suggestions for improvement as they go along.

Types of Structured Training

Structured on-the-job training also takes place in the work environment, but differs in that it is better planned. For example, trainers may deliver presentations and lectures, recommend reading materials, or provide instructive questionnaires that help the trainee to learn new skills.

The trainee then applies what they've learned. The trainer inspects work or shadows the trainee and offers feedback and suggestions, as with unstructured on-the-job training.

Advantages of On-the-Job Training

One of the biggest advantages of this approach to training is that it's easy to set up. All you need is an experienced team member, and the tools and resources that the trainee will need to do their job.

On-the-job training (especially unstructured) is inexpensive compared to other forms of training such as computer simulation and classroom-based training. This makes it especially useful for smaller organizations.

Another advantage is that this approach to training puts new team members into the daily operations of the organization right from the start. New people can quickly get a feel for the corporate culture and the pace of work, and they can rapidly get to know their new colleagues and key stakeholders.

Trainees will also have the opportunity to put their new skills to use immediately, which helps them to retain the information they've learned.

When On-the-Job Training Is Appropriate

On-the-job training can be beneficial in many work environments, especially in areas such as customer service, retail, sales, and manufacturing.

It can also be useful for roles that require the use of hard skills, such as data entry or purchasing, or any role that's heavily dependent on structured procedures. It is often used in succession planning, too.

It can, however, be less beneficial in knowledge-based roles such as IT or marketing. (Trainees in these roles are likely to benefit more from classroom-based training.)

The effectiveness of on-the-job training will also depend on your team or organization.

For example, the quality of instruction largely depends on the staff member you choose to do the training. If they have no knowledge of training techniques, or poor communication skills, they won't be able to deliver instructions or insights clearly. This can lead to gaps in the trainee's knowledge.

On-the-job training can also take a long time. During this time, trainers may have to delegate, or delay other work, to make time for training sessions. Depending on their role, this can lower the productivity of other team members, or even an entire team.

How to Set Up On-the-Job Training

On-the-job training is relatively easy to set up.

The first step is to identify potential trainers in your department or organization. Look for those who are skilled in their area (and potentially others, too). They'll also need good communication skills, patience, emotional intelligence, and empathy.

Trainers must be willing to share their knowledge. You may also want to identify trainers based on their overall attitude to the job, and to your organization – having a good role model is especially important if trainees are new to the team or organization.

Once you've identified your trainers, you may need to teach them how to train new people. (Our articles on Encouraging Learning In the Workplace and 4MAT can help here.) Your trainers may also benefit from knowing how to mentor another team member.

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If the training session will be unstructured, write up a brief outline detailing what you'd like the trainer to cover. Make sure that they have all the passwords and tools they need to work with the trainee.

You'll also have to decide who will take over the trainer's main responsibilities if their work is affected while they're doing the training.

If the training will be structured, do a Training Needs Assessment with the trainee to find out how much they already know. This can help you, or the trainer, structure the information in the most useful and effective way.

Next, consider following this simple four-step process for each session of on-the-job training:

  1. Prepare: Explain to trainees how the training session will take place. Give them an overview of the skills that they'll be learning.
  2. Present: Present the information that they need to learn. This could be in the form of written materials, videos, online learning sessions, or lectures, for example.
  3. Apply: Once trainees have received instruction, encourage them to try tasks out on their own, while being supervised by the trainer.
  4. Inspect: At this point the trainer needs to inspect what trainees have done, and offer feedback on what went right, and what went wrong. For each new skill learned, the trainer should continue to provide feedback and guidance.


This four-step process was originally designed by Charles Allen, a manufacturer, who based it on the ideas of psychologist Johann Herbart. Bear in mind, however, that this process might not be always relevant to your needs, or to the role that you're training for. Use your own best judgment here.

Example of On-the-Job Training

You've recently hired a new sales rep, Janet, to join your district team.

After looking over her résumé and conducting a Training Needs Assessment, you know that Janet has previous sales experience, and responds well to observational and hands-on training techniques.

You decide to pair her with Eva, one of your leading sales reps. You know that training Janet will take away from Eva's valuable time, but you want her to be coached by one of your best people.

A few days before Janet is due to start, you call Eva into your office to discuss the training. You've written up a list of learning objectives and skills that you'd like Janet to know by the end of the week-long shadow session. Her main objectives are to learn how to find potential new clients, learn the organization's process for initiating contact, and get a thorough knowledge of the entire product line. You also ask Eva to pass along other skills, such as how to sell effectively in your industry's niche.

On Monday morning Janet spends the morning in Eva's office, watching her make sales calls and organizing her list of afternoon client meetings. She takes notes, and asks regular questions.

In the afternoon, she shadows Eva while she meets potential clients. She gets to see how Eva approaches the clients, the methods she uses to explain the product line, and how she goes about closing the sale.

A few days into her training, Eva asks Janet to communicate with potential clients. Janet is also encouraged to start researching and creating her own list of prospects. She then goes with Eva and takes the lead in these meetings while Eva stays in the background, watching and taking notes. After each meeting, Eva lets Janet know what she did well, and where she needs more work.

By the end of the week Janet is comfortable with the routine and demands of her new role. She's developed a list of potential clients, and gone through several meetings as the lead rep. Eva will continue to mentor her and answer questions over the next few weeks, while she learns more skills.

Key Points

On-the-job training is one of the most widely used approaches to training. It offers several benefits, such as ease of use, low cost, and quick implementation.

You can improve your on-the-job training programs by making sure that your trainers are properly trained themselves. You should also provide an outline of skills that the trainee should have mastered by the end of the training program.

For structured on-the-job training, follow the four steps of prepare, present, apply, and inspect, for each training session.

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Comments (4)
  • Over a month ago a_takatsu wrote
    The content is it really good and you can apply easily. But, what I would like to see are which are the best metrics to track the progress of OJT, give a feedback for the trainees about their progress, if the learning curve it is reaching the goals, and if need some improvement, how to do it to make them be successful.
  • Over a month ago zuni wrote
    We incorporate on-the-job training into our succession process.

    In our industry (telecommunications) we have identified employees with essential skills (those skills that are critical to the business) and critical roles. In some cases the skills are emerging and finding talent in the marketplace with the skills we need is tough. And, lke many companies we have an aging workforce which makes it imperative that we transfer the knowledge and skills of our senior employees into the workforce.

    For our senior employees (techincal trades and management) we encourage them to mentor or apprentice more junior employees. This approach is a win-win for everyone. The senior employee is recognized for his/her talent (boosts morale), the junior employee is able to grow and develop, and the company develops the skills it needs to achieve its objectives.

    We use a similar approach for essential skills. For new technologies such as fibre-op we train a core team to use and implement the new technology and have the core team members train others.

  • Over a month ago aia2011 wrote
    I am planning to use this year on-the-job training sessions as a way to boost my employees' job motivation.
    I feel lucky that I have a staff member with great technical experience who enjoys training people. He did an initial training session last year and everyone was delighted. The only problem, as the article mentions, is that training preparation and attendance take time from everyone's regular jobs. Another setback that I have seen in formal training classes is that once at the office schedules people do not have enough time to practice the new learned technologies and barely use the training material. I hope that by scheduling monthly or bi-monthly mini training follow-up sessions, people get more comfortable with the new learned methods and get some practical results out of the training.
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